Wednesday, 22 February 2012

Overview of Higher Online Education in Sweden

Sweden's higher online education consists of over 60 institutions that offer various forms of higher education. This includes over 35 public online universities and online university colleges and over 20 private institutions. At 76 percent, Sweden has one of the highest percentages of students starting higher education as a percentage of its population.

Sweden University and College Directory

Sweden's funding of higher online education exceeds that of most of the world with 1.5 percent of their GDP being spent. About half of that money goes towards doctoral level programs and research, resulting in a high number of doctoral program graduates and significant interest among prospective doctoral students from around the world. Since public higher education is funded almost entirely by the government, both Swedes other EU citizens able to attend free of charge. Living costs and study materials can be financed through government grants and online loans, to make it possible for all students to attend regardless of income or where they live.
Admissions to bachelor's level programs for both public and private institutions are based on final secondary school grades and scores on the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test. In the common scenario where there are more qualified applicants that there are spaces available for a given program, students are ranked by their school grade averages. Some programs also require knowledge from specific coursework at the secondary school level such as a higher level of math for an Economics program.
Sweden's higher education is overseen by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education which is also responsible for reviewing the quality of institutions.
Types of Schools and Degrees
The country's public and private universities offer bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees. University colleges of which there are over 20 public and close to 10 private, offer diplomas, bachelor's and master's degrees although a few have obtained permission to offer limited doctoral degrees. There are also over 12 independent schools with the right to award qualifications in psychotherapy.
The name of a school does not necessarily correspond to the type of school it is; some universities use the Swedish term for college (hogskola) and some university colleges call themselves universities. The only real difference is whether the school has unrestricted rights to award doctoral level degrees.
Many of the universities and university colleges offer a broad range of subjects while others specialize in areas such as medicine, technology, fine arts, social sciences and psychology. Within Sweden, the schools are seen as equivalent to each other with desired program availability, location and size being the primary considerations when students choose a school.
All bachelor's degrees and above conform to the structure set by the Bologna Agreement which standardized higher education degrees across the 29 European nations that participated.
International Students
Many students from other countries are drawn to study in Sweden resulting in approximately eight percent of Sweden's higher education students coming from outside Sweden. A remarkable 33 percent of doctoral students come from abroad. Students must speak fluent Swedish to take courses taught in the native language although there are many programs that are taught in English and require English proficiency. Students from outside the EU and EEA will also need to obtain a visa which can take several months to receive.
Beginning in the fall of 2011, international students from outside the EU and EEA who are beginning their studies at a Swedish institution will be required to pay application and tuition fees, which will vary by school. EU and EEA students will continue to receive a Swedish higher education for free.
Admission of foreign students is determined by each institution based on students' prior education and test scores. Sweden has a pooled admissions system, allowing prospective students to apply for more than one program via the same application.
About Sweden
Over 9.2 million people live in Sweden which is located in northern Europe with Norway to it's west, the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia to its east and Finland across its northern border. The most heavily populated areas in the south have a temperate climate and mild temperatures year-round.
Although Swedish in the official language, about 89 percent of residents speak fluent English, making it Europe's most English proficient country. Sweden is the home of the Nobel Prize committees for all prizes except the Peace prize. It is a member of the European Union but maintains its own currency – the krona. Sweden maintains a high standard of living and ranked 7th on the 2009 United Nation's Human Development Index.

Sweden Universities

Blekinge University -- Blekinge Institute of Technology - Karlskrona
Hoegskolan i Lulea -- Luleå University of Technology - Luleå
Danshögskolan -- University College of Dance and Circus - Stockholm
Free University of Stockholm -- Stockholm
Goeteborgs Universitet -- University of Gothenburg - Gothenburg
Halmstad University College -- Halmstad
Hoegskolan i Boras -- Borås University College - Borås
Hoegskolan i Joenkoeping -- Jönköping University - Jönköping
Hoegskolan i Kalmar -- Linnaeus University - Kalmar, Växjö
Hoegskolan i Skovde -- Skövde University College - Skövde
Hoegskolan Kristianstad -- Kristianstad University College - Kristianstad
Högskolan Dalarna -- Dalarna University College - Borlänge, Falun
Högskolan i Gävle -- Gävle University College - Gävle
Högskolan Trollhättan - Uddevalla -- University College West - Trollhättan
Karlstads universitet -- Karlstad University - Karlstad
Linkoepings universitet -- Linköping University - Linköping
Lunds universitet -- Lund University - Lund
Mälardalens Högskola -- Mälardalen University - Eskilstuna, Västerås
Malmo University -- Malmö University - Malmö
Mitthoegskolan -- Mid Sweden University - Härnösand, Östersund, Sundsvall
Örebro universitet -- Örebro University - Örebro
Stockholm University -- Stockholm
Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet -- Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences - Uppsala
Umea universitet -- Umeå University - Umeå
Uppsala Universitet -- Uppsala University - Uppsala
World Maritime University -- Malmö

Overview of Higher Online Education in Spain

Spain's higher education system includes a large number of public and private universities as well as other non-university schools of higher education such as business schools and schools that offer programs in tourism, visual and performance art and physical education. An estimated 88 percent of Spain's higher education students attend one of over 45 public universities.

Spain University and College Directory

Spain's public higher education system is known to be overcrowded, especially in the first year, before tough exams have weeded out the less committed students. The system is very structured and students are not allowed to move between public schools except for reasons of necessity. Most students live at home and thus the full experience of higher education many students benefit from in other countries is not common in Spain.
Admissions to public universities is based on a student's secondary school grades as well as their score on the PGB university entrance examination given at the end of secondary school. Tuition at public universities and other public schools is fairly low – typically up to about 1000 euros a year for undergraduate programs.
Higher education in Spain is the responsibility of the Ministry of Science and Innovation, which is a newly created organization that is focusing attention on the need for research and innovation in sciences to promote the economic and social development of Spain.
Types of Schools and Degrees
Until very recently, Spain's higher education schools and degrees were quite different from those of most other western countries. As a result of the European Bologna agreement of 1999, which set a goal of standardizing higher education degrees across Europe, Spain has been making significant changes to their higher education structure. Most schools now offer bachelor's, master's and doctoral level degrees but some still offer old-style degree programs as the transition from old to new continues.
Bachelor's degrees, which are referred to as a "graduado degrees" are earned in four years for most programs, master's degrees in another year or two and doctoral degrees in a varying amount of time, depending on the program. Schools may also offer other certificates and diplomas in addition to these degrees.
Students who wish to study engineering or architecture can attend universities that specialize in these areas. Other universities offer a broad range of programs of study while smaller non-university schools offer a limited scope of programs. Foreign universities and colleges attract international students who want to study in Spain. Study programs in Spain's public institutions typically have a fixed curriculum, leaving students with minimal flexibility to explore subjects outside their program of study.
International Students
Less than two percent of higher education students in Spain are from abroad. Those that do choose to study in Spain often do so through an exchange program or choose to attend a private school which is often an American or European school.
European Union citizens are admitted on the same basis as Spanish citizens, substituting their own country's secondary qualifications for Spanish qualifications. Proficient knowledge of the Spanish language is necessary and is confirmed by the individual university. Tuition for international students at public schools is the same as for Spanish citizens which tends to run up to about 1000 euros a year but varies from school to school.
About Spain
Spain is a country of diverse geography, climates, and cultures. It's population of about 46 million people live in higher densities near the capital of Madrid and in coastal areas which exist on three sides of the country. Spain is a popular tourist destination that is well-known for its many historical sites, artistic influences and Spanish architecture.
Spain ranks 15th on the 2007 United Nations Human Development Index and has the 9h highest life expectancy in the world, based on the same report. It's GDP is about the 10th highest in the world. It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations and NATO.

Spain Universities 

Centro Universitario Villanueva -- Madrid
Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea -- University of the Basque Country - Bilbao, San Sebastian, Vitoria- Gasteiz
IE University -- Segovia
Mondragon Unibertsitatea -- University of Mondragón - Mondragón
Schiller International University -- Madrid
Universidad Alfonso X -- Universidad Alfonso X el Sabio - Villanueva de la Cañada
Universidad Antonio de Nebrija -- Hoyo de Manzanares, Madrid
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid -- Universidad Autónoma de Madrid - Madrid
Universidad Camilo José Cela -- Villanueva de la Cañada
Universidad Cardenal Herrera-CEU -- Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera - Castellón de la Plana, Elche
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid -- Colmenarejo, Getafe, Leganés
Universidad Católica de Ávila -- Catholic University of Avila - Ávila
Universidad Católica de Valencia -- Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Martir - Valencia
Universidad Católica San Antonio -- San Antonio Catholic University - Murcia
Universidad Complutense de Madrid -- Madrid Complutense University - Madrid
Universidad de Alcalá -- University of Alcalá - Alcalá de Henares
Universidad de Alicante -- University of Alicante - San Vicente del Raspeig
Universidad de Almeria -- University of Almeria - Almería
Universidad de Burgos -- University of Burgos - Burgos
Universidad de Cadiz -- University of Cadiz - Cadiz
Universidad de Cantabria -- University of Cantabria - Santander
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha -- University of Castilla-La Mancha - Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Toledo
Universidad de Cordoba -- University of Cordoba - Cordoba
Universidad de Deusto -- University of Deusto - Bilbao
Universidad de Extremadura -- Badajoz, Cáceres, Merida, Plasencia
Universidad de Granada -- University of Granada - Granada
Universidad de Huelva -- University of Huelva - Huelva
Universidad de Jaén -- University of Jaén - Jaén
Universidad de La Laguna -- University of La Laguna - La Laguna
Universidad de La Rioja -- University La Rioja - Logroño
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria -- University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria - Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Universidad de León -- University of Leon - Leon, Ponferrada
Universidad de Malaga -- Málaga University - Malaga
Universidad de Murcia -- University of Murcia - Murcia
Universidad de Navarra -- University of Navarra - Pamplona
Universidad de Oviedo -- University of Oviedo - Oviedo
Universidad de Salamanca -- University of Salamanca - Salamanca
Universidad de Sevilla -- University of Seville - Seville
Universidad de Valladolid -- University of Valladolid - Valladolid
Universidad de Zaragoza -- University of Zaragoza - Zaragoza
Universidad Europea de Madrid -- European University of Madrid - Villaviciosa de Odon
Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes -- Miguel de Cervantes European University - Valladolid
Universidad Francisco de Vitoria -- Francisco de Vitoria University - Pozuelo de Alarcón
Universidad Internacional de Andalucía -- International University of Andalucía - Huelva, Jaen, Malaga, Seville
Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo -- Menéndez Pelayo International University - Madrid
Universidad Miguel Hernández -- Miguel Hernández University of Elche - Alicante
Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia -- National University of Distance Education - Madrid
Universidad Pablo de Olavide -- Pablo de Olavide University - Seville
Universidad Pontificia Comillas -- Comillas Pontifical University - Madrid
Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca -- Pontifical University of Salamanca - Salamanca
Universidad Pública de Navarra -- Public University of Navarra - Pamplona, Tudela
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos -- Rey Juan Carlos University - Madrid
Universidad San Pablo -- San Pablo CEU University - Madrid
Universidad SEK -- International University SEK - Carcelén
Universidade da Coruña -- University of A Coruña - A Coruña
Universidade de Santiago -- Royal University of Santiago de Compostela - Santiago de Compostela
Universidade de Vigo -- University of Vigo - Vigo
Universitat Abat Oliba CEU -- University Abat Oliva CEU - Barcelona
Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona -- Autonomous University of Barcelona - Cerdanyola del Vallès
Universitat de Barcelona -- University of Barcelona - Barcelona
Universitat de Girona -- University of Girona - Girona
Universitat de les Illes Balears -- University of the Balearic Islands - Palma
Universitat de Lleida -- University of Lleida - Lleida
Universitat de Valencia -- University of Valencia - Valencia
Universitat de Vic -- University of Vic - Vic
Universitat Internacional de Catalunya -- International University of Catalunya - Barcelona
Universitat Jaume I -- Jaume I University - Castellón de la Plana
Universitat Obierta de Cataluniya -- Open University of Catalonia - Barcelona
Universitat Pompeu Fabra -- Pompeu Fabra University - Barcelona
Universitat Ramon Llull -- Ramon Llull University - Barcelona
Universitat Rovira i Virgili -- University Rovira i Virgili - Tarragona
University San Jorge -- San Jorge University - Huesca

Overview of Higher Online Education in Germany

Germany's higher education institutions offer an extensive range of high-quality, post-secondary programs that students can choose from. Broad-based universities as well as specialized schools in subjects such as engineering, technology and science provide many options for students to pursue. German higher education is funded by federal and state governments and is overseen by the Ministry of Education.

Germany University and College Directory

Although on the rise, only about 19 percent of Germans earn university level degrees, which is a lower percentage than many other developed countries. Their universities in recent years have been crowded although recent increases in government funding and focus is helping to alleviate this problem.
Types of Schools and Degrees
There are more than 90 universities that offer a wide range of programs and award degrees up through the doctoral level. Another 190 schools or so are more specialized and offer bachelor's and/or master's degrees in subjects such as engineering, business and information technology. Schools of Applied Sciences, Technology, Arts, Business and others offer education that is primarily career focused whereas the larger, general universities provide a broader education and focus more heavily on research.
Bachelor's degrees can usually be earned in three years and master's degrees in another year or two. The length of doctoral degree programs vary depending on the program. All post-secondary education institutions must be accredited by one of seven certified accreditation agencies. As a result of the Bologna Process which created standardization of degrees across the European Union, German degrees are considered equivalent to degrees earned throughout Europe as well as many other countries.
Private universities and colleges are growing in numbers, size and reputation with over 60 now in operation. These schools tend to be more practically-focused with an international orientation and thus appeal to international employers. Private schools charge tuition whereas public schools are free to German and EU citizens as long as the program is completed in a timely manner.
International Students
Germany is a popular destination for those who want to study abroad, with about 200,000 international students attending German schools of higher education each year. International students can attend German schools assuming they meet the admissions requirements set by the school. Some subject-matters, mostly in science and medicine are restricted at the federal level while some subjects are restricted by individual schools. Admissions are competitive at some schools with aptitude exams becoming more commonly used in evaluating international students. These exams can often be taken in one's home country. Additionally, foreign students must be speak German fluently and may need to pass a language exam before being accepted. They must possess proof of completion of secondary school or higher education entrance exam that is deemed equivalent to Germany's higher education entrance exam.
A number of schools now offer degree programs taught primarily in English to meet the increasing demand of international students who want to study in Germany. The program options are more limited but provide a unique opportunity to international students who don't have the advanced German language skills that would lead to success in traditional courses.
Tuition for non-EU international students is very reasonable, costing about 500 euros a semester at public schools in 2010. There are typically some other fees, such as a semester fee of about 100 euros and living expenses to consider. Non-EU students must remember to apply for a study visa well in advance. All students should plan to arrive early as they will need to register in person before the semester starts.
The German Academic Exchange Service website provides detailed information to help international students who are interested in attending school in Germany.
About Germany
Germany is a country of 16 states with a population of over 82 million people. Berlin is the largest city with over three million people. It has the fifth largest economy in the world and is known for superior product design and quality of its manufactured products. It's climate overall is moderate, but varies between the mountainous, low-lying and coastal regions.
Germany's elementary and secondary education system is very strong resulting in a 99 percent literacy rate. Due to a long-standing focus on vocational training, 70 percent of secondary school graduates continue on with three years of vocational training which often coincides with apprenticeship training. About another 19 percent continue on to earn a university-level degree.

Germany Universities

Accadis Hochschule Bad Homburg -- University Accadis Bad Homburg - Bad Homburg
Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg -- University of Freiburg - Freiburg
Bauhaus Universität Weimar -- Bauhaus-Universität Weimar - Weimar
Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universität -- University of Wurzburg - Würzburg
Bergische Universität - Gesamthochschule Wuppertal -- University of Wuppertal - Wuppertal
Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg -- University of Oldenburg - Oldenburg
Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel -- University of Kiel - Kiel
Deutsche Hochschule für Verwaltungswissenschaften -- German University for Administrative Sciences Speyer - Speyer
Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln -- German Sport University Cologne - Cologne
DIU Dresden International University -- Dresden International University - Dresden
Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen -- University of Tübingen - Tübingen
Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Greifswald -- University of Greifswald - Greifswald
Europa Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) -- Viadrina European University - Bradenburg, Frankfurt
Evangelische Fachhochschule Darmstadt -- Protestant University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt - Darmstadt
Evangelische Fachhochschule Freiburg -- Protestant University of Applied Sciences Freiburg - Freiburg
Evangelische Fachhochschule für Religionspädagogik und Gemeindediakonie Moritzburg -- University Moritzburg - Moritzburg
Evangelische Fachhochschule Hannover -- Faculty V-Diakonia, Health and Social Services - Hannover
Fachhochschule des Mittelstandes (FHM) Bielefeld -- Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences of the Middle Class - Bielefeld
Fachhochschule Erfurt -- Erfurt
Fachhochschule Esslingen -- Hochschule Esslingen - Esslingen
Fachhochschule für Angewandtes Management -- University of Applied Management (FHAM) - Bad Tolz, Erding, Günzburg, Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz
Fachhochschule für die Wirtschaft Hannover -- College of the Economy (FHDW-Hannover) - Celle, Hannover
Fachhochschule für Oekonomie und Management Essen -- College of Economy & Management (FOM) - Food
Fachhochschule für Verwaltung und Rechtspflege Berlin -- College of Administration and Judicature (FHVR) - Berlin
Fachhochschule Furtwangen -- Hochschule Furtwangen - Furtwangen, Tuttlingen, Villingen-Schwenningen
Fachhochschule Gießen-Friedberg -- Friedberg, Pour, Wetzlar
Fachhochschule Regensburg -- Regensburg University of Applied Sciences - Regensburg
Freie Universität Berlin -- Free University of Berlin - Berlin
Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg -- University of Erlangen Nuremberg - Erlangen, Nuremberg
Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena -- Friedrich Schiller University of Jena - Jena
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen -- University of Göttingen - Göttingen
Gerhard-Mercator-Universität GH Duisburg -- University Duisburg-Essen - Duisburg, Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia
HafenCity Universität Hamburg -- Port City University of Hamburg - Hamburg
Hamburger Universität für Wirtschaft und Politik -- Hamburg University of Economics and Politics - Hamburg
Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf -- Heinrich Heine University - Düsseldorf
Hochschule für Forstwirtschaft Rottenburg -- Rottenburg University of Applied Forest Sciences - Baden-Württemberg, Rottenburg am Neckar
Hochschule für Künste Bremen -- University of the Arts Bremen - Bremen
Hochschule für Musik Detmold -- University of Music Detmold - Detmold
Hochschule für Musik Hanns Eisler Berlin -- University of Music "Hanns Eisler" - Berlin
Hochschule Vechta -- University of Vechta - Vechta
Humboldt-Universität Berlin -- Humboldt University of Berlin - Berlin
IB-Hochschule Berlin -- University of Federal International (IB) Berlin - Berlin
International University in Germany -- International University - Bruchsal
Internationale Fachhochschule Bad Honnef - Bonn -- International University of Applied Sciences Bad Honnef - Bad Honnef, Bad Reichenhall
Jacobs University Bremen -- Bremen
Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt -- Goethe University Frankfurt - Frankfurt am Main
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität -- Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz - Mainz
Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen -- University of Giessen - Giessen
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München -- Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich - Munich
Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg -- Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg - Halle
Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg -- University of Bamberg - Bamberg
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg -- Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg - Magdeburg
Philipps-Universität Marburg -- Philipps University of Marburg - Marburg
Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Münster -- Theology University of Münster - Münster
Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Augustin -- Theology University of Sankt Augustin - Sankt Augustin
Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Vallendar -- Theology University of Vallendar - Vallendar
Private Universität Witten/Herdecke GmbH -- University of Witten/Herdecke - Witten
Rheinische Friedrich- Wilhelms- Universität Bonn -- University of Bonn - Bonn
Robert-Schumann-Hochschule Düsseldorf -- Robert Schumann University - Düsseldorf
Ruhr-Universität Bochum -- Ruhr University Bochum - Bochum
Ruprecht-Karls-Universität -- Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg - Heidelberg
Schiller International University -- Heidelberg
SRH Fachhochschule Hamm - Hochschule für Logistik und Wirtschaft -- SRH Hamm University - Hamm
SRH FernHochschule Riedlingen -- SRH Riedlingen University - Riedlingen
SRH Hochschule Berlin -- SRH Berlin University - Berlin
SRH Hochschule Calw -- SRH Calw University - Calw
Steinbeis-Hochschule-Berlin -- Steinbeis University Berlin - Berlin
UniBwM - Universität der Bundeswehr -- Bundeswehr University Munich - Neubiberg
Universität Augsburg -- University of Augsburg - Augsburg
Universität Bayreuth -- University of Bayreuth - Bayreuth
Universität Bielefeld -- University of Bielefeld - Bielefeld
Universität Bremen -- University of Bremen - Bremen
Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg -- Helmut Schmidt University - Hamburg
Universität der Künste Berlin -- Berlin University of the Arts - Berlin
Universität des Saarlandes -- Saarland University - Saarbrücken
Universität Dortmund -- Dortmund University - Dortmund
Universität Erfurt -- University of Erfurt - Erfurt
Universität Flensburg -- University of Flensburg - Flensburg
Universität Gesamthochschule Kassel -- University of Kassel - Kassel
Universität Gesamthochschule Paderborn -- University of Paderborn - Paderborn
Universität Gesamthochschule Siegen -- University of Siegen - Siegen
Universität Hamburg -- University of Hamburg - Hamburg
Universität Hannover -- University of Hannover - Hannover
Universität Hildesheim -- University of Hildesheim - Hildesheim
Universität Hohenheim -- University of Hohenheim - Stuttgart
Universität Koblenz-Landau -- University of Koblenz-Landau - Koblenz, Landau
Universität Köln -- University of Cologne - Cologne
Universität Konstanz -- University of Konstanz - Kostanz
Universität Leipzig -- University of Leipzig - Leipzig
Universität Mannheim -- University of Mannheim - Mannheim
Universität Osnabrück -- University of Osnabrück - Osnabrück
Universität Passau -- University of Passau - Passau
Universität Potsdam -- University of Potsdam - Potsdam
Universität Regensburg -- University of Regensburg - Regensburg
Universität Rostock -- University of Rostock - Rostock
Universität Stuttgart -- University of Stuttgart - Stuttgart
Universität Trier -- University of Trier - Trier
Universität Ulm -- University of Ulm - Ulm
Universität zu Lübeck -- University of Lübeck - Lübeck
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität -- University of Münster - Münster
Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau -- West Saxon University of Applied Sciences of Zwickau - Zwickau
Zeppelin University, Friedrichshafen -- Zeppelin University - Friedrichshafen